The Single-Use Battery is an item added by Industrial Craft 2. It only holds 1,000 EU, far less than a RE-Battery, and can't be charged. When crafted, however, Single-Use Batteries are produced in far larger quantities.
Holding the Single-Use Battery and right-clicking will recharge any electric tools in the inventory. This includes the Mining Drill, the Diamond Drill, the Chainsaw, the Electric Wrench, the Electric Hoe, and the Electric Treetap. In addition, the Single-Use Battery can be used to power any Industrial Craft 2 machine, the BatBox, MFE, or MFSU.